(The beginning - 8000 BC) - Paleolithic period – Native hunters lived by hunting large animals in hunting groups like mammoths and ice-age bison that are now extinct.

(8000 -1000 BC) - Archaic period - As the climate changed the Native peoples gathered wild plants, herbs and hunted more kinds of animals, living better off the land.

(2000 BC) - Settlement of larger groups of gathering and hunter are established

(7000-6000 BC) - The Native people slowly migrated from the south and lived in the Central Mississippi River Valley building larger communities and building burial mounds.

(1000 AD) - Woodland period -- Native People became more efficient at killing game like bison and deer. They could therefore live in larger groups.

(200 AD) - Woodland period – Native People along the Missouri River built burial mounds and made pottery.

(500 AD) - The development of the bow and arrow came into use, replacing darts and spears which meant more game for the people.

(800 AD) - Woodland Siouan speaking people settle into the Middle Missouri Valley slowly moving northwestward

(900 AD) - Plains Village people began to plant corn, and sunflowers, in addition to hunting. They lived in earth lodges within villages protected by ditches and log palisades.

(900 -1200 AD) - The Dakota people were a part of the Mound Builder in the Ohio and Mississippi Valley.

(1400) - Arikara moved away from their brother tribe the Pawnee and migrate to the northern plains.

(1450) - Hidatsa migration northward into the area of Spirit Lake North Dakota Two brothers No Intestine and Red Scout each had a vision at Spirit Lake, No Intestine was to go west looking for a sacred plant, and he created the Crow Nation in what is Montana today. Red Scout vision told him to make his home near Spirit Lake and created the Hidatsa Nation so at this time the two brothers crated two nations Crow and the Hidatsa.

(1450) - Arikara occupy the Bad/Cheyenne River Area establishing earth lodge villages.

(1500) - Plains Village people were living all along the Missouri River valley. There is archaeological evidence of their hunting camps all throughout the states of North Dakota, South Dakota and Nebraska.

(1500) - The Lakota Bands were located on the Mille Lac Lake.

(1500-1600) - The Dakota bands of Mdewakanton, Wahpeton, Wahpekute, and Sisseton were located at the head waters of Wakan Wakpa (Rum River) and Ogechie Lake.

(1500) - The Mandan people occupied the Upper Missouri Valley

(1541) - Coronado visited and traded Indian tribe who talked about the Mandan people in the Upper Missouri Valley and traded with them.

(1541) - Spanish conquistadores explored the plains and wrote about trading corn with plains Indians living in the Upper Missouri River area, they wrote about the earthlodges.

(1575) - The Mandan build the fortified city of On-a-Slant village which was occupied for at least 200 years until it was abandoned following the devastating smallpox epidemic of 1781

(1600) - The Dakota, Lakota, Araphoes, Arikara, Cheyenne, Chippewa and Mandan living in the Dakotas.

(1650) - The Mandan villages are situated between Cannonball and Knife Rivers. The Third Band is of Hidatsa, called Hidatsa Proper, who left their villages in the Devil's Lake area and settled in the Missouri River Valley.

(1650) - The Spanish trade horse to the Plains tribes in exchange for releasing some Wichita captives.

(1650) - Makoche broke off from the Oglala over a dispute with a battle with the Omaha and took his people and moved north forming the Hunkpapa Band.

(1656) - Dakota were living in five villages near Mille Lac Lake and the Lakota began to stay in the west during the winter months instead of returning to the Minnesota valley.

(1660) - The Saone Tribes- Sihasapa, Mnicoujou, Oohenonpa and Itazipco occupied the West Side Missouri River and along the Moreau River and the Grand River.

(1650) - Arikara traded with the Spanish at Elk Horn River.

(1659) - Radisson and Graseilliers were the first French traders on the Hudson to meet with the Sioux (Dakota) in now what is Wisconsin.

(1670) - Mandan and Hidatsa make contact with English traders on the Hudson Bay to obtain axes, metal spear points, kettles and awls.

(1675-1780) - Double Ditch Village is established about 1675 and was inhabited from 1780 A.D.

(1675) - Mandan established Ward Village about 1675 and occupied it until 1780. It is located northwest Bismarck.

(1676) - July 2, 1676 - Duluth claimed the Mille Lacs area for King Louis XIV even though the Dakota still lived in the area.

(1680) - Duluth and Father Hennepin visited the Dakota on the upper Missouri River.

(1682) - Rene Robert Cavelier and Sieur LaSalle claimed the Dakota for France.

(1683) - Nicholas Perrots established a post at the mouth of Wisconsin River.

(1689) - Nicholas Perrots established Fort Perrot near lower end of Lake Pepion within Dakota Territory.

(1690) - The trade with the European started to change the way of life of the Dakota and Lakota people with beads, knives, metal pans and tools.

(1700) - Several tribes, including the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Teton (Sioux) occupy and control the Missouri River Valley Plains economy and have established hunting territories from the Big Bend River in South Dakota to the mouth of the Yellowstone River. Mandan draw together in a region 20 miles on either side of the Heart River.

(1701) - Ambassador of Montreal New France sent out invites to the tribes to gather and 1’300 people from 38 tribes came from the Sauk, Fox, Winnebago, Potawatomni, Miami, Huron, Anishinabe, Kickapoo, Lakota, Senca, Caguga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk to meet with the Ambassador.

(1713) - English received the Northern part of the Dakotas from France.

(1718) - Chief Wapahasa was born at the headwaters of Spirit Lake (Wakan Mde-Mille Lac)

(1720) - The Lakota split into two groups the Soane in the north and the Oglalas in the south.

(1720) - The Arikara continued migrating north along the Missouri River they started to build earth lodge villages in the South Dakota area. They eventually established a trading center along the Missouri River.

(1720) - Spanish fur trader Le Seur finds Arikara around the Fort Pierre area. Arikara located on the south Heart River.

(1723) - Arikara have earth lodges on the Grand River in South Dakota where trade with is made with the Mandan.

(1724) - The Lakota and Dakota answered the call from Tecumseh (Shawnee) to come and join the fight, in the Ohio Valley.

(1724) - Red Thunder and his son Charger fight with Tecumseh in Ohio, Red Thunder’s daughter married Robert Dixon of the Ohio fort.

(1725) - The Hunkpapa with the Cheyenne now occupied the Grand River Area.

(1730) - The Cheyenne introduced the horses that changed everything for the people and later guns from the east greatly changed life in Lakota and Dakota

(1734) - The Separation of Arikara and Schirri bands near mouth of the Cannonball River.

(1736) - A group of Lakota it is said killed Jean Baptiste De La Verendrye at the Lake of the Woods.

(1738) - The LaVerendrye Brothers, Pierre and Sieur explored North Dakota wrote of the five villages on the banks of the Missouri near the mouth of the Heart River.

(1740) - Cheyenne built earth lodges village above present day Fort Yates just below the mouth of the Porcupine Creek.

(1743) - The LaVerendrye Brothers, exploring for France, become the first white men to leave proof of their presence in South Dakota. They bury a lead plate on a hill on the west bank of the Missouri River near present day Fort Pierre to claim the area for France.

(1750) - The Kathio Battle, French who encouraged the Ojibwa to fight the Dakota over Territory needed for trading furs at Mille Lac, the Ojibwa was supplied alcohol and guns power by the French. The Ojibwa supplied with French guns and gun power won the Mille Lac area from the Dakota.

(1760) - The Lakota drove the Omaha Indians from the Big Sioux and James River Valleys. Lakota arrival at the Missouri ignites a long war with the Arikara for control of the Missouri Valley in central South Dakota.

(1760-1763) - The wars with the Lakota and Dakota fought the Arikara over territory in the Missouri River Valley.

(1779) - Jacques d’Eglise a Spanish trader came to the Missouri valley by the way of the Missouri River.

(1772) - Small Pox arrives on the plains and wiping out large populations of tribes on the plains, the tribes hit the hardest were the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara people.

(1776) - The Lakota fought the Cheyenne over the Black Hills and taken the territory as their own.

(1780) - The Great smallpox epidemic among the Indians of the Upper Missouri, smallpox among the Mandan spread after an Assiniboine attack the village across the plains.

(1794) - The Sioux Wars with the Arikara comes to an end about 1794, with the Sioux driving the Arikara out of central South Dakota.

(1804) - October 8, 1804 - Lewis and Clark meet the Arikara’s near the mouth of the Grand River at a place that was called Ashley Island near Mobridge, SD, the Chief that greeted them was Chief Grey Eyes and Chief Eagle Feathers.

(1804) - October 14, 1804 - Lewis and Clark on Private Newman carried out court martial sentencing near the South Dakota border.

(1804) - October 18, 1804 - Lewis and Clark stopped on the Cannon Ball River to hunt and gather plants.

(1807) - September 9, 1807 - Ensign Pryor lost 19 men in a battle with Chief Grey Eyes who was one of the Chief that met with Lewis and Clark at the mouth of the Grand River. Ensign Pryor was trying to return Chief Big White back to his people.

(1809) - September 9, 1809 - Pierre Choteau and Manuel Lisa passed peacefully though the area and return Chief Big White back to the Mandan People.

(1811) - Manuel Lisa born in New Orleans; led first important expedition up the Missouri 1807 and built Fort Manuel on the upper Missouri River and Fort Lisa at mouth of Bighorn River; with Andrew Henry, Jean Pierre Chouteau, and others founded Missouri Fur Company and built Fort Lisa near mouth of Big Knife River in North Dakota; erected Fort Manuel in South Dakota 1812; Fort Manuel was established by Manuel Lisa and Toussaint Charbonneau on the banks of the Missouri River right below the present day Kenel, South Dakota.

(1811) - The Artorian party goes up the Missouri to the Grand River where they buy horses of the Rees and go thence up Grand River toward Pacific.

(1812) - The War of 1812 the Dakota and Lakota sided with the British because of the relationship with Robert Dixon.

(1812) - The Dakotas became known as the Missouri Territories.

(1812) - It is written that the squaw of Charbonne died of putrid fever at Fort Manuel. A fur trader at Fort Manuel, an outpost owned by fur mogul Manuel Lisa, apparently recorded her death in his journal on Dec. 20, 1812. John C. Luttig wrote that Charbonneau's wife, a Shoshone woman, "died of a putrid fever." He went on to write "she was a good and the best woman in the fort, aged abt 25 years." Fort Manuel, now underwater, was near present-day Kenel, S.D., just south of the North Dakota border on the Standing Rock Reservation.

(1813) - Manuel Lisa made subagent for Missouri River Sioux and keeps them friendly to American interest

(1818) - Smallpox epidemic across the plains.

(1823) - Arikara Indians attack a fur trading party led by a General Ashley. Twelve of the fur traders were killed and eleven wounded. This fight is one of the first fights between Indians and whites in South Dakota. News of the attack on the Ashley party resulted in the launching of a punitive expedition against the Arikaras. The expedition was under the command of Col. Henry Leavenworth. The troops consisted of six companies of the 6th U.S. Infantry and several groups of fur traders. A group of Lakota accompanied the troops. The expedition resulted in the capture of several villages and the death of a number of Arikara. This expedition was the first military campaign in South Dakota.

(1823) - Jedediah Smith made a prayer for the wounded at the mouth of the Grand River, S.D. Jedediah Smith, was born June 24, 1798, at Bainbridge, New York. While still in his teens, Jedediah joined an Ashley fur-trading expedition to the Rocky Mountains, becoming one of the original "Ashley Men," trappers under the command of William Ashley. He continued in the Rocky Mountain fur trade for more than a decade.

(1825) - The 1825 Treaties are signed for trade with a number of Indian tribes on Standing Rock. General Henry Atkinson and Major Benjamin O’Fallon met with a number of Missouri River tribes to establish treaties of peace and friendship. In actuality the United States wanted to curtail the British trading with tribes in the area. Treaty negotiated with Teton, Yankton and Yanktonai at Fort Lookout along Missouri River on June 22, 1825.

(1830) - United States Congress enacted the Indian Removal Act.

(1834) - Sitting Bull was born along the Grand River at Many Cache

(1837) - Smallpox epidemic reduced the Mandan from 1600 to 150 people. The Yanktonais loss about a 1/3 of their people on the James River valley

(1845) - Smallpox epidemic hits the plains again.

(1850) - Smallpox epidemic

(1851) - February 27, 1851 - The first of the Indian Appropriate Act was passed by U.S. Congress which allocated funds for the removal and moving tribes to reservations.

(1851) - Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851; Fort Laramie treaties were signed with the Lakota, Cheyenne, Arapaho and other Plains tribes delineating the extent of their territories and allowing passage across these territories in exchange for payments to the tribes. Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Laramie, in the Indian Territory, between D. D. Mitchell, superintendent of Indian affairs, and Thomas Fitzpatrick, Indian agent, commissioners specially appointed and authorized by the President of the United States, of the first part, and the chiefs, headmen, and braves of the following Indian nations, residing south of the Missouri River, east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the lines of Texas and New Mexico, viz, the Sioux or Dahcotahs, Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Crows, Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre Mandans, and Arickaras, parties of the second part, on the seventeenth day of September, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one. The extent of Lakota territories was clearly described. The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 defined the Territory of the Lakota and Dakota referred to as The Great Sioux Nation. All of South Dakota West of the Missouri River. This Treaty also promised that no Whites should enter the Sioux Territory without the permission of the Sioux. Thus began the incursions of miners and wagon trains on the Oregon and later the Bozeman trails, few at first but an onslaught after the end of the Civil War.

(1851) - Treaty of the Traverse Des Sioux was signed on July 23, 1851 in which the Dakota were forced to cede large tracts of land in Minnesota Territory to the United States. In exchange for money and goods, the Dakotas were forced to agree to live on a 20 miles wide Indian Reservation centered on the 150 mile stretch of the upper Minnesota River.

(1854) - August 19, 1854 - The Mormon Cow incident where Conquering Bear was killed over a skinny cow belonging to a Mormon settler traveling west the fight was led by Lt. Gratten and his soldiers it became known as the Gratten Massacre.

(1855) - 700 U.S. Soldier under General William S. Harney attacked a Lakota village in Nebraska killing over 100 men, women and children as a revenge for the Gratten Fight.

(1858) - May 11, 1858 - Minnesota became a state and the Dakotas lost the northern half of their reservation on the Minnesota River and rights to Pipe Stone quarry which was a major blow to the Dakotas as they protested to Washington DC. The promised of money and goods never came the small parcel of land could not support the Dakotas and people were starving.

(1862) - May 20, 1862 - The Homestead Act gave freehold title to 160 acres (one quarter section or about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American West. The person to whom title was granted had to be at least 21 years of age, and to have built on the section, and lived in for 5 years, a house that was at least 12 by 14 feet in size. The Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln.

(1862) - August 4, 1862 - The Dakota Bands of the Sissrtowan and Wahpeton met at the Upper Sioux Agency and received rations, a conflict between soldiers and Dakotas at Upper Agency at Yellow Medicine led to a decision to distribute provision on credit to avoid violence.

(1862) - August 17, 1862 - Mdewakanton and Wahpekute turned to Lower Sioux Agency on August 15, 1862 and they were refused food because the Trader Andrew Jackson Myrick refused to give the people credit and stated “So far as I am concerned, if they are hungry let them eat grass or their own dung.”

(1862) - August 17, 1862 - Began the Dakota Wars in Southwest Minnesota when one young Dakota with a hunting party came across some eggs in a hen’s nest along a fence line of a settler’s home stead and the settlers shot at him and the young Dakotas hunter killed five settlers.

(1862) - August 18, 1862 - Little Crow led a group that attacked the Lower Sioux Agency and Andrew Myrick was one of the first to be killed. The warrior burned the buildings at Lower Sioux Agency.

(1862-1865) - The Dakota Wars began August 17, 1862, the Dakotas war parties swept the Minnesota River Valley and near vicinity killing many settlers. The Minnesota militia forces and B Company of the 5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment went sent after the Dakotas.

(1862) - Battle of New Ulm Minnesota August 19, 1862 were the Dakotas burn much of the town but a thunderstorm dampened the warfare preventing further attack.

(1862) - Battle of Birch Coulee September 2, 1862 thirteen soldier killed only two Dakotas killed.

(1862) - Battle of Wood Lake on September 23, 1862 with the arrival of a larger army under General John Pope and Colonel Henry H. Sibley with a six ponder cannon the United States Army defeated the Dakotas.

(1862) - September 28, 1862 - Colonel Sibley appointed a five member military commission to try the Dakotas and mixed blood for murder and other outrages committed against Americans.

(1862) - Many of the Dakotas fled Minnesota seeking refugee with other Dakota and Lakota bands in the Dakotas and Nebraska.

(1862) - Five member military commission had the trails in summer kitchen cabin of trader Francois LaBathe at Lower Sioux Agency. Sixteen trails conducted the first day at Camp Release over the next six weeks the military court try 393 cases and convicted 323 and sentenced 303 to death by hanging.

(1862) - December, 1862 -The United States Army captured over a 1000 Dakotas and interned them in prison, due to the killing of the settlers. The Dakotas were held at Fort Snelling and at Mankato and then the prisoner were transported to Camp McClellan near Davenport Iowa.

(1862) - December 6 1862 President Lincoln’s handwritten order of execution for 39 Dakotas was signed one Dakota was reprieved between the date of Lincoln order and the execution.

(1862) - December 26, 1862- at 10:00 AM 38 hung at Mankato MN, 303 Dakota prisoners were convicted of murder and rape by military tribunals and sentenced to death. Some trials lasted less than 5 minutes, and the Dakotas had no one to explain the proceedings to them or to represent them. President Lincoln reviewed the trial records and approved of the execution of 39 of the convicted, and commuted the death sentences of the others. The 38 were executed by public hanging on December 26, 1862, in Mankato. It remains the largest execution in the history of the United States.

(1863) - Dakota Territory was open for homesteading.

(1863) - April, 1863 - Congress enacted a law providing for the forcible removal all Dakotas from Minnesota.

(1863) - July 3, 1863 - A farmer shot Little Crow while the Dakota chief picked berries with his son near Hutchinson. The farmer received a $500 reward from the state of Minnesota.

(1863) - July 24-25, 1863 - Big Mound Battle, General John Pope lead a military expedition to punish the Dakotas with Colonel Henry Hasting in command of 3,320 men one of the largest military expedition led against the Dakota. Sibley led the attacked on 1,500 Dakotas and Yanktonais. The Native warrior spent the time protecting the women and children and retreated and the soldier did not follow them. Sibley destroyed their camps, burning tipis, cooking utensils and their supply of food.

(1863) - July 26, 1863 - Dead Buffalo Lake Battle was a skirmish where the warrior came in to capture the pack animals of Sibley, in the fashion of the Native people they would attack and retreated Sibley army fired on the warrior but they retreated and the skirmish ended.

(1863) - July 28, 1863 - Stony Lake Battle – The Dakota warrior fought Sibley delaying action against Sibley until their women and children had successfully made it across the Missouri River, Sibley gave up the chase after the tribes made it across the river.

(1863) - July 29-31, 1863 - Apple Creek Battle, where Sibley tried to attack the warrior still on the eastside of the Missouri River, the small scale attacks by the warrior on Sibley army last for three nights, the warriors started a prairie fire which took some of the supplies of Sibley. Sibley with the loss of supplies abandoned the operation and marched back to Minnesota.

(1863) - September 3, 1863 - Massacre at Whitestone, 600-700 solider under the command of General Alfred Sully attacked a peaceful village of Ihunktonwan (Yanktonais), Hunkpatina (Lower Yanktonais) and Pabaska at Whitestone Hill North Dakota. 300 Ihunktonwans were massacred mostly woman and children. General Sully lost 20 soldiers, most killed by their own comrade’s bullets.

(1863) - September 4, 1863 - Sully ordered all the Indian property at Whitestone to be destroyed as well as tons of buffalo meat and tallow. The order was to shoot all the dogs, wounded horses, and any survivors living. The soldier burned all the lodges, food and killed all the dogs. The soldier destroyed the entire winter meat supplies with all the homes and house supplies. The Survivor of Whitestone under Chief Big Head and Two Bears were taken to Crow Creek Agency as prisoner of war.

(1863) - General Sully established Fort Rice along the Missouri River near an Ihunktonwana village and rebuild the forts along the Missouri River.

(1863) - The Military fort established at present day Fort Yates. The Military Fort was built on the banks of the Missouri River called Standing Rock Cantonment and was later called Fort Yates after George W. Yates who died at the Little Big Horn.

(1864) - July 29, 1864 - Killdeer Mountain Battle was the largest battle fought with the Lakota-Dakota and the United States Army under Brig Gen Sully, the battle began with a Hunkapapa warrior named Lone Dog who rode out taunting the soldiers. At one point, cannons were brought forward to clear onlookers from a prominent hill, which stood squarely in the line’s advance. At another point, an Indian scouting party, returning to the village, threatened the supply wagons at the rear of the phalanx, until another battery was rushed back to support the harried rear line. Foot by painful foot, the soldiers advanced, and inch by inch, the Indians yielded. As the day wore on and it became apparent that the full force of both sides were unlikely to engage in a pitched battle, Major Brackett led a cavalry charge that broke the Indian line and drove it into forested breaks in front of and beside the village. Meanwhile, a battery of cannons secured a position overlooking the village. From this vantage point, the cannons literally tore the village and the Indians’ forward lines apart. The troops surrounded the village on three sides and advanced toward the center of the ever-tightening circle. A battery of field guns, set up to the north, shelled the Indians out of the forested gullies behind the village and onto the exposed hillsides. The warrior kept the soldiers at bay well them made sure the women and children were taken to safety. As their families climbed to safety, the warriors valiantly defended them until darkness silenced the guns.

(1864) - July 29, 1864 - The following morning, Sully left approximately 700 men at the village site to collect and destroy all abandoned materials. With the rest of his troops, he set out to find and kill the Indians who escaped attack, but he was defeated by the deep canyons and steep buttes of the badlands. Soldiers burned between 1,500 and 1,800 lodges, 200 tons of buffalo meat and dried berries, clothes and household utensils, tipi poles, travois, and piles of tanned hides. With bayonets, they punctured camp kettles, buckets, and pails. They also shot all the dogs and wounded horses. Leaving this scene of smoldering devastation at about 4:00 p.m., the troops marched six to eight miles back along their trail. That night, Indians attacked the soldiers’ picket line killing two soldiers, Privates David La Plant and Anton Holzgen, Company D, 2nd Minnesota Cavalry. Later that night, Sergeant Isaac Winget, Company G, 6th lowa Cavalry, was shot and killed by a nervous sentry. Although Sergeant Winget’s body was never found, the other two men were buried the following day in a little valley near the scene of their deaths, and Sully’s command returned to the base camp and wagon train at the Heart River.

(1866) - March 22, 1866 President Andrew Johnson ordered the release of the 177 surviving prisoners from Camp McClellan they were moved to the Santee Reservation near Niobrara Nebraska.

(1866) - The Transcontinental Railroad started laying tracks right through the heart of Sioux Nation ignoring the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty starting in Council Buff Iowa and California.

(1866-1868) - Red Cloud leads the Sioux and several allied tribes in all-out war against the U.S. military (known as "Red Cloud's War") to close the Bozeman Trail that passed through buffalo hunting grounds in the Big Horn Territory from northeast Wyoming into Montana. In the 1866 Fetterman Massacre, 80 U.S. troops are lured out of Fort Phil Kearny and slaughtered by Indians led by Red Cloud and Crazy Horse. Eventually, the U.S. admits defeat and sues for peace, the only time Indian leaders defeat the United States in an extended all-out war. Red Cloud opposed the opening of the Bozeman Trail to travel by whites and the staffing of forts in the traditional hunting lands of the Teton. For two years he led the Oglalas and other Teton bands in battles against the United States Army and forced the U.S. to abandon the forts.

(1866) - Charles McCarthy, JB Dillion and Edward Donohue were the first white men to settle on what would become Standing Rock Reservation as wood cutters, they did not remain long on the in the area.

(1866) - The Grand River Trading Post was established near Wakpala SD

(1866) - Isaiah Dorman settled on Standing Rock at the military fort of Standing Rock cantonment with his Indian wife and he was the first Black man to settle on the reservation, he will end up dying at the Little Big Horn battle.

(1866) - First school was started on Standing Rock, first house was built by Durfee and Peck, fur traders but when finished Ben Arnold lived in it.

(1867) - July, 1867 - Grand Council of 6,000 tribes at Bear Butte, the sacred mountain of the Cheyenne and Lakota, attended by Crazy Horse, Red Cloud, and Sitting Bull, among other great leaders, pledged to end further encroachment by the whites.

(1867) - Sitting Bull lead a war party against Fort Buford in western North Dakota.

(1868) - Fort Laramie Treaty of 1968 A treaties is signed with the Sioux ending the Red Cloud War of 1866-1868. ARTICLE I.

From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall forever cease. The government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it. If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent, and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington city, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also reimburse the injured person for the loss sustained. ARTICLE XVI.

The United States hereby agrees and stipulates that the country north of the North Platte River and east of the summits of the Big Horn mountains shall be held and considered to be unceded. Indian territory, and also stipulates and agrees that no white person or persons shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy any portion of the same; or without the consent of the Indians, first had and obtained, to pass through the same; and it is further agreed by the United States, that within ninety days after the conclusion of peace with all the bands of the Sioux nation, the military posts now established in the territory in this article named shall be abandoned, and that the road leading to them and by them to the settlements in the Territory of Montana shall be closed. Among the provisions of the Ft. Laramie Treaty of 1868 is a clause that continues the Great Sioux Reservation. The area contained in this reservation included the Black Hills.

(1869) - The Transcontinental Railroad was completed extend from Council Buff Iowa to San Francoise California 1’907 miles of track laid down with the final spike at Promontory Summit Utah.

(1870) - July 18, 1870 - A new site for the Grand River Agency was selected at a location some fifty-five miles up the Missouri River, and on July 18, 1873, the steamboat Silver Lake moved the agency there. The first building was of the new Grand River Agency was built along the Missouri River located close to the present day Wakpala South Dakota W.F. Cady was the first Indian Agency for the new Grand River Agency from December 1870 to December 1871.

(1870) - Grand River Agency established approximately four miles above the confluence of the Grand and Missouri River. It was situated on the West bank of the Missouri River. About 4,500 Sioux bands from the Blackfeet, Hunkpapa, Cuthead, and Upper Yanktonai were the four main groups. Small gathering of Brules, Oglala, San Arc and Two Kettle were also at Grand River.

(1870) - Fort Yates was designated as a military fort. Because of this hostile attitude, it became apparent that a military force was necessary to maintain a more peaceful state of affairs at the agency. In compliance to pleas for protection, a military post was officially established on May 20, 1870. This post was built adjacent to the agency and accommodated companies A and F of the 17th infantry.

(1870) - George Belden was killed by White Antelope at Grand River Agency who was a novelist on the new reservation.

(1871) - March 3, 1871 - The Second Indian Appropriate Act. 25 U.S.C. Section 71

Future Treaties with Indian Tribes Sec. 71. No Indian nation or tribe within the territory of the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the United States may contract by treaty; but no obligation of any treaty lawfully made and ratified with any such Indian nation or tribe prior to March 3, 1871, shall be hereby invalidated or impaired. Such treaties, and any Executive orders and Acts of Congress under which the rights of any Indian tribe to fish are secured, shall be construed to prohibit (in addition to any other prohibition) the imposition under any law of a State or political subdivision thereof of any tax on any income derived from the exercise of rights to fish secured by such treaty, Executive order, or Act of Congress if section 7873 of title 26 does not permit a like Federal tax to be imposed on such income. That all Indian should be treated as individuals and legally designated “Wards” of the Federal Government and forbidding Indian people from leaving the reservation.

(1873) - Heavy snow fall caused the river to rise and flood the Grand River Agency by May of 1873 all the building was under water.

(1873) - Grand River Agency moved to present day Fort Yates. Although the agency site was changed in 1873, it continued to be called the Grand River Indian Agency. The Fourth of July, the steamer Molie Moore left the old Grand River Agency with the first load of material and supplies for the new agency. Tom Mariner, or Brocky Tom, was master and she carried 26 soldiers of "K" and "G" Companies, 17th U. S. Infantry, Sergt. Meyers in charge. Members were William P. Zahn, John Manning, Paddy Finn and Jesse Jordan. Mr. Zahn says that the boat made its first landing at the mouth of Porcupine creek, five miles north, but at the request of Major Palmer, who decided that an ideal location was found on the gently sloping plateau south of Proposal Hill, which was a more favorable location. H. A. Archambault, was foreman of construction, and Capt. John Hardy was the government farmer in charge, and he was drowned that same summer at the Grand River, whither he had returned to issue supplies which still remained there. In August, 1973, the contract was let to complete the construction of the new agency, and for $30,000 John B. Dillon and William Harmon put up the log buildings in a square formation on the level land where the modern office and residence buildings of the Fort Yates Agency now stand, and at this day not one of the original buildings remain to bear witness to these assertions.

(1873-1880) - Major Charles F. Gaplin’s widow (Eagle Plume Woman-Matilida Picotte Galpin) ran a trading post north of Fort Yates on the Missouri River.

(1874) - December 22, 1874 - The Grand River Agency name was changed to the Standing Rock Agency. The agency’s name was derived from the famous Standing Rock, a stone sacred to the Indians. This stone, if viewed from the correct angle and with some degree of imagination, resembles the seated figure of a small, shawled woman with a child on her back. The rock was carried by the tribe, and it occupied a position in the center of each village in which they lived. This stone was the common property of the Teton Sioux and was venerated as a sacred relic. It lay for years in the section occupied by the Lower Yanktonais, and that band was the protector of the rock. The new location of the agency was regarded a wise selection. It was situated on high tableland at a point where the Missouri River was narrow and deep. It also had a river landing which was accessible to steamboats in all stages of water.

(1874) - The First Standing Rock Indian Agents was Acting Major Moffett, February 1874 to March 1874 then Major Palmer became the first Superintendent for Standing Rock.

(1874) - An expedition led by Lt. Col. George A. Custer discovered gold in the Black Hills, sending a rush of prospectors to the area in violation of the 1868 treaty. The Lakota revolted. Custer led an expedition into the Black Hills and found gold. The rumors of gold and the need for military posts on the Great Sioux Reservation in the Black Hills area result in the Black Hills Expedition of Lt. Col. George A. Custer. In addition to troops, Custer's expedition included a large corps of scientists and several miners. Gold is discovered in the vicinity of present day Custer and the Black Hills gold rush begins. A direct violation of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868.

(1874) - December, 1874 - Rain in The Face was arrested by Captain George W. Yates for the killing of Dr. John Honsinger the Army Veterinarian near today Miles City Montana, Rain in The face was put in the stockade at Fort Yates. Rain in the Face kept breaking out of the stockade so by the order of George Custer and was taken by Tom Custer to Fort Abraham Lincoln and incarcerated. Rain in the Face escaped Fort Abraham Lincoln.

(1875) - Fort Yates was official named Standing Rock Agency, December 22 – Standing Rock Indian Agency officially named. Name comes from a legend important to both Dakota and Lakota people. 1875 - This new site was located above the 46th Parallel of North Latitude; consequently, it lay outside of the area set apart as reservation in the Fort Laramie Treaty.

(1875) - March 16, 1875 - Executive Order to extend the northern boundary of Standing Rock. The Northern boundary of Standing Rock was extended to the Cannon Ball River, with the 102nd meridian as the Western boundary and the Missouri River as the eastern boundary. The Sioux (Standing Rock) Reserve occupied by Blackfeet, Hunkpapa, Lower and Upper Yanktonai Sioux, in an area of 4,176 square miles was established by Fort Laramie Treaty April 29, 1868, and act of February 28, 1877 (19 Stat., 254).]

EXECUTIVE MANSION, March 16, 1875. It is hereby ordered that the tract of country in the Territory of Dakota lying within the following-described boundaries, viz: Commencing at a point where the one hundred and second degree of west longitude intersects the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude; thence north on said one hundred and second degree of longitude to the south bank of the Cannon Ball River; thence down and with the south bank of said river to a point on the east side of the Missouri River opposite the mouth of said Cannon Ball River; thence down and with the east bank of the Missouri River to the mouth of Beaver River; thence up and with the south bank of Beaver River to the one hundredth degree of west longitude; thence south with said one hundredth degree of longitude to the forty-sixth parallel of latitude; thence west with said parallel of latitude to the place of beginning, be, and the same hereby is, withdrawn from sale and set apart for the use of the several tribes of Sioux Indians, as an addition to their present reservation in said Territory.

(1875) - Great Council on Standing Rock. The Standing Rock Sioux were highly irritated at the invasion of the Black Hills by miners and they refused to attend the grand council. They made their case by saying "It is no use in making treaties when the great father will either let white men break them or not have the power to prevent them from doing so." After much persuasion from the agent the people agreed to attend the council. The council was held September 20 to the 29, from the beginning there seemed little hope of a compromise on the distrusted territory. 15,000 Indian people attended the council and, at various times came close to attacking the Black Hills commissioners. The Indian people would have no part of the treaty or negotiation for the Black Hills and the Big Horn Mountains.

(1875) - December 5, 1875 - An ultimatum was dispatched to these hostiles ordering them to come to their respective agencies by January 31, 1876, or the Army would be sent out to drive them in. This order was sent by Commissioner of Indian Affairs E.P. Smith and read as follows: I am instructed by the Honorable Secretary of the Interior under the date of the 3rd instant to direct you to notify Sitting Bull’s band, and other wild and lawless bands of Sioux Indians, residing without the bounds of their reservation, who roam over western Dakota and eastern Montana, including the rich valley of the Yellowstone and Power Rivers and made war on the Arickarees, Mandan, Gros Ventres, Assinaboines, Blackfeet, Piegans, Crows and other friendly tribes, that unless they shall remove within the bounds of their reservation (and remain there) before the 31st of January next they shall be deemed hostile and treated accordingly by the military force. The winter is bitter and most Sioux do not even hear of the ultimatum until after the deadline.

(1876) - Military campaigning against the hostile was resumed in June 1876. The strategy employed by General P.H. Sheridan involved three distinct military columns moving from different directions to trap the Indians at a common center. The first column under General Cook was to proceed to Fort Fetterman to the north. The second group under General John Gibbon was to come down from Fort Ellis in Montana to the southeast. The third column under General Alfred Terry was to move from Fort Abraham Lincoln to the southwest. Including in this latter group was the Seventh Cavalry commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer. This three pronged offensive failed when General Crook was stopped in a battle of the Rosebud on June 17.

(1976) - June 17, 1876 - The Battle of Rosebud with General Crook who was attacked a Lakota and Cheyenne warriors the battle lasted six hours, the Lakota and Cheyenne attacking the soldiers and held them back

(1876) - June 25, 1876 - Custer attacked a large hunting camp of Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho on the Little Big Horn River in Montana. Sitting Bull, Gall, Crazy Horse, and several Cheyenne leaders defeated Custer and the 7th Cavalry. General Custer and 250 soldiers were killed. Lakota and allies win the battle at Little Big Horn against Custer and the Seventh Cavalry.

(1876) - Congress states that the Lakota (Sioux) will not receive any more treaty-guaranteed rations until they agree to sell the Paha Sapa. The Lakota call this the "Sell or starve" option.

(1876-1879) - Benedictine Monk began evangelizing the Native people on Standing Rock Reservation starting with the Hunkpapa.

(1876) - August, 1876 - Catholic Priest Father Martin Marty arrived at the Standing Rock Agency to begin missionary activities.

(1877) - Congress votes to take Black Hills from the Sioux in open violation of the 1868 Treaty, which requires three-fourths of the adult Sioux, males to approve. Government officials obtained only a few signatures. The United States Government introduced the Sell or Starve Bill or the Agreement of 1877. The Lakota people starved but refused to sell their sacred land so the U.S. Congress illegally took the Black Hills from the Great Sioux Nation

(1877) - The February Act of 1877 is the most controversial agreement regarding the Black Hills land claims. The agreement officially took away Sioux land, and permanently established Indian reservations. Article 1 of the act modifies the boundaries of reservations stated in the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty, while Article 2 allows the United States government to establish roads for settlers to travel upon when crossing the territory. Also, article 7 states that only full blood Indians residing on the reservation are allowed to the agreements and benefits from this act as well as past treaties. The controversies around this act state that the government purchased the land from the reservation but there is no valid record of this transaction With passage of the Act of February 28, 1877, the United States took over 7 million acres, including the Black Hills, from the Great Sioux Reservation.

(1877) - Crazy Horse surrendered at Fort Robinson and was killed in Fort Robinson Nebraska.

(1877) - May, 1877 - Sitting Bull refused to surrender and led his band across the border into Canada, where he remained in exile for many years, refusing a pardon and the chance to return.

(1877) - The Catholic Boarding School with the Benedictine was established on Standing Rock in Fort Yates, one for boys and one for girls.

(1877) - First school teacher Mrs.Van Solen taught in first school building on Standing Rock. She was the Daughter of Eagle Plume (Mrs. Galpin).

(1877-1881) - Benedictine Sisters from Ferdinand Indiana came to staff the reservation government school.

(1878) - Hampton Institute in Hampton, Va., a non-sectarian Christian vocational school for educating ex-slaves admits Indian students. Its motto is “education for the Head, the Hand, and the Heart.” Many young people from Standing Rock are sent to Hampton.

(1878-1887) - This is the period of the Great Dakota Boom. Settlers pour into Dakota. The railroads provide a major incentive to settlement. Agriculture and industry both prosper.

(1878) - Fort Yates is officially designated a military fort.

(1878) - December 12, 1878 - Standing Rock created the Indian Police force as permitted by the Federal Government under the direct orders of the federally appointed Agent.

(1879) - First group of young Sioux people went to Carlisle Indian School. The Carlisle Indian School is founded in Pennsylvania in an aggressive U.S. government campaign to "civilize" Indian children. Children from reservations across the West are sent to the school in order to assimilate into white culture. This assimilation includes cutting their hair, burning their clothing and forcing them to wear European American dress. They are forbidden to speak their Native language, and punishment for infractions is severe. The school is a breeding ground for disease, and many children die there.

(1879) - The establishment of the Indian Farm School located at Kenel South Dakota under Reverend Martin Kenel.

(1879) - The Sisters from St. Peters were moved to the Indian Farm School in Kenel and they staffed the farm School.

(1880) - Stage Coach Line open from Fort Yates to Winona to Bismarck.

(1880) - St Benedict Mission Assumption of Our Lady was established at Kenel South Dakota.

(1880) - Catholic Girls boarding school moved 15 miles north of the Standing Rock Agency because of the soldiers molesting the young girls.

(1880) - Goose Camp was established by Chief Goose in the Selfridge area.

(1881) - September, 1881 - Major James McLaughlin was appointed as the Indian agent on Standing Rock he comes with his Dakota wife Marie who spoke Dakota.

(1881) - July 19, 1881 - Sitting Bull returns from Canada July 19: Sitting Bull surrendered at Fort Buford. He and his band were transferred first to Fort Yates, the military post located adjacent to the Standing Rock Agency. Arriving with 185 people, his band was kept separate from the other Hunkpapa gathered at the agency. Army officials remained concerned that the famed Hunkpapa chief would use his influence to stir up trouble among the recently surrendered northern bands and consequently, they decided to transfer him and his band to Fort Randall to be held as prisoners of war. Again loaded on a steamboat, Sitting Bull's band, totaling 172 people, were sent down river to Fort Randall where they spent the next 20 months. He was finally allowed to return to the Standing Rock Agency with his band, arriving in May 1883.

(1881) - The Last Sundance was held near Mission Flat site then was officially banned.

(1882) - June 20, 1882 - The Last Great Buffalo Hunt was held about 100 west of the reservation with the Lakota and Dakota people, McLaughlin rode out with 2000 people from Standing Rock to an area known as Hiddenwood Creek where a large herd of buffalo were. The tribe lived their last glory of the hunt before resigning to the reservation.

(1882) - The Cannon Ball Catholic Church and Mission was established in the Cannon Ball community.

(1882) - Crow King brought his daughters to the Mission School to help start the Indian people bring in their children to the boarding schools.

(1883) - May, 1883 - Sitting Bull and his band were released from prison and returned to Standing Rock.

(1883) - The government issued a set of Indian Offense that strictly forbid all traditional ceremonies and aimed at the center of Dakota and Lakota spiritual life. All traditional life ways and ceremonies were banned by law. These included giveaways, the sun dance, rites of purification and social dances.

(1883) - August 5, 1881 - Crow Dog shot and killed Spotted Tail , a Lakota chief; there are different accounts of the background to the killing. The tribal council dealt with the incident according to Sioux tradition, and Crow Dog paid restitution to the dead man's family. However, the U.S. authorities then prosecuted Crow Dog for murder in a federal court. He was found guilty and sentenced to hang. December 12, 1883 Ex-parte Crow Dog- the Supreme Court held that unless authorized by Congress, federal courts had no jurisdiction to try cases where the offense had already been tried by the tribal council. Crow Dog was therefore released.

(1883) - By 1883, Dakota Territory had been reduced to what are now the States of South and North Dakota, Wyoming and Montana having been organized as separate territories.

(1884) - A Hunkpapa Chief Crow King died on Aril 4, 1884 leaving his daughter in the custody of Major James McLaughlin.

(1884) - The Indian Census Act, An act passed by the United States Congress on July 4, 1884 (23 Stat. 980) required the superintendents or agents of the Office of Indian Affairs on each reservation to record information about individuals living on each reservation. The data on the rolls vary to some extent, but usually given are the English and/or Indian name of the person, roll number, age or date of birth, sex, and relationship to head of family. Beginning in 1930, the rolls also show the degree of Indian blood, marital status, ward status, place of residence, and sometimes other information. There is not a census for every reservation or group of Indians for every year. Only persons who maintained a formal affiliation with a tribe under federal supervision are listed on these census rolls. The resulting records cover 1885 to 1940.

(1885) - The Third Indian Appropriate Act which allowed tribes and Indian Individuals to sell unoccupied land that they claimed as their own to White people.

(1885) - Sitting Bull was allowed to leave the reservation to join Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West show. He only stayed with the show for four months, but was rumored to earn about $50 a week for riding once around the arena and cursing the patrons in his native tongue, much to their delight. Sitting Bull became what today we would refer to as a celebrity. He earned a small fortune by charging for his autograph and picture.

(1886) - November 11, 1886 - Standing Rock was erected. The ceremony was held for the unveiling of the Standing Rock. Fire Cloud of the Fire Heart Band was selected to do the ceremonies.

(1887) - Reverend Waldo Reed established a Congregational Mission consisted of a parsonage, school, Church and Hospital which was located about 2 miles of Fort Yates North Dakota.

(1887) - The Dawes Act and "allotment": During the 1880s American reformers grew concerned that Indians on the reservations were not improving themselves and becoming self-sufficient, but were instead sinking into poverty and despair. The purpose of the Dawes Act was to dissolve the reservation by forcing individual Indians to live on small family farms. Every Indian would receive 160 acres of land of reservation land. Any land left over was sold. One goal of allotment was to destroy Indian "communalism," i.e., the practice of many families living together and sharing property. Tribes affected by allotment were those located in states where land was most sought after for farming by Euro American settlers: North and South Dakota, Kansas, Minnesota and Wyoming. Within the first ten years of allotment, more than 80 million acres of Indian land were opened for settlement.

(1887) - A Catholic Church and Mission was established in Bullhead South Dakota.

(1887) - A St. Bede Catholic Church was established in Wakpala South Dakota.

(1889) - 500 Standing Rock Dakota and Lakota people attended the fourth of July parade in Bismarck North Dakota where Sitting Bull carried the American Flag and Hairy Chin dressed as Uncle Sam. It is said that because Hairy Chin wore the Uncle Sam outfit on that day it caused his death a few days later.

(1889) - An act by the U.S. Congress in March 1889 split the Great Sioux Reservation into five smaller reservations. In 1889, North Dakota and South Dakota were holding statehood conventions and constituents of the soon-to-be states again demanded reduction of the Great Sioux Reservation. So, government commissioners were once again on the Great Sioux Reservation seeking the break-up of this land base. Some of the tribes began performing the Ghost Dance, a religious ceremony that sought to extinguish the Euro Americans and return the buffalo and the former way of life. South Dakota was admitted into the Union in November. The split was carried out in February, 1890. Once on the reduced reservations, tribes were separated into family units on 320 acre plots, forced to farm, raise livestock, and send their children to boarding schools that forbade any inclusion of Native American traditional culture and language. The allotment provision was a special provision for the Dakota and Lakota. It was the goal of the Federal government to allot 160-320 acres farmsteads to each Indian family, and then open the reservation to non-Indian settlements dissolving the Indian land base and ending the reservation system. The government believed the surest way to bring about assimilation of the Indian people was to make them self-sufficient farmers. Individual land ownership would break up tribalism in which the land was used in common. The wisdom of the day was that Indian people would suddenly drop their values, teachings, languages, and cultural practices if they moved onto individual plots of land.

(1889) - North Dakota and South Dakota was admitted into the Union of the United States in November.

(1889) - The Fourth Indian Appropriate Act March 2, 1889, signed which officially opened the Unassigned Lands to white settlers under tenets of the Homestead Act.

(1889) - The land cession agreement of 1889, cause government to cut the beef rations, and bad weather caused crop failures brought the Sioux to the brink of starvation and hopelessness. It added to the resentment toward the white man and their promises. They were no longer free to roam the plains. The great buffalo herds were gone, and food was inadequate. In the summer of that year, hope comes to them in the form of the "Ghost Dance," so called because they believed that this magical dance would bring back the dead and the buffalo as well as eliminate the whites.

(1889) - Cannon Ball was officially named and a post office was in operation in the community.

(1890) - Ghost Dance: After experiencing a vision during a solar eclipse, Wovoka, a Paiute prophet (also known as Jack Wilson), defined a new religion combining Christian and Native elements. In the vision, Wovoka was given a glimpse of the afterlife. To reach it, God's message was for the Native peoples to love each other, to not fight, and to live in peace with Euro Americans. God also stated that Native Americans must work, not steal or lie. The religion was dubbed the "Ghost Dance" religion and it quickly swept through the Great Plains and even out to California, though each area modified it to their own belief. The religion gained a huge following from peoples devastated by disease, warfare, and Euro American encroachment. One modification of the Ghost Dance tradition was the so-called "Ghost Shirt". These special garments were supposed to repel bullets through spiritual power. The Lakota also reinterpreted Wovoka's vision of peaceful coexistence with Euro-Americans, replacing it with the idea of a "renewed Earth" in which "all evil is washed away". In the Lakota interpretation of the Ghost Dance, all Euro-Americans would be removed from their lands.

(1890) - Fall of the year: To help support the Sioux during the period of transition into the five smaller units, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), was delegated the responsibility of supplementing the Lakota with food and hiring Euro American farmers as teachers for the people. The farming plan failed to take into account the difficulty Lakota farmers would have in trying to cultivate crops in the semiarid region of South Dakota. By the end of the 1890 growing season, a time of intense heat and low rainfall, it was clear that the land was unable to produce substantial agricultural yields. At this same time, the government, fed up with what they saw as Indian laziness, cut rations to the Lakota in half. The Lakota had no options available to escape starvation. Increased performances of the Ghost Dance ritual ensued, frightening the supervising agents of the BIA. Kicking Bear was forced to leave Standing Rock, but when the dances continued unabated, Agent McLaughlin asked for more troops, claiming that Sitting Bull was the real leader of the movement. A former agent, Valentine McGillycuddy, saw nothing extraordinary in the dances and ridiculed the panic that seemed to have overcome the agencies. Nevertheless, thousands of additional US Army troops were deployed to the reservation.

(1890) - The Lakota began to organize Black Hills Council on their reservations for the purpose of seeking the return of the sacred Black Hills.

(1890) - Indian Boarding and Day Schools were established across with the primary goal of "killing the Indian" the assignation policy was in full force within education system for many Lakota children.

(1890) - December 15, 1890 - Sitting Bull was arrested on the reservation for failing to stop his people from practicing the Ghost Dance. During the incident, a Charging Bear witnessing the arrest fired at one of the soldiers prompting an immediate retaliation; this conflict resulted in deaths on both sides, including Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull killed by Indian police in the winter of 1890, the army moved west to force the Indians to stop performing the Ghost Dance. The Indian Police were given order by Major James McLaughlin to arrest Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull was killed while being arrested by tribal police.

(1890) - December 29, 1890 - Massacre at Wounded Knee after Sitting Bull was murdered his people fled to Big Foot camps and with members of Big Foot's camp who heard of Sitting Bull's death, panic and flee south to the Badlands. When they reached the Badlands, they are captured by soldiers and taken to a small village called Wounded Knee. Wounded Knee Creek: The Miniconjou leader Big Foot was on his way to a meeting with the remaining Sioux chiefs when he was stopped by US Army officers and forced to relocate with his people to a small camp near the Pine Ridge Agency so that they could keep an eye on him. On the evening of December 28, the small band of Big Foot's Sioux erected their tipis on the banks of Wounded Knee Creek. The following day, US Army officials arrived to collect any remaining weapons from the band. One young and deaf Sioux warrior refused to relinquish his arms. A struggle followed, and a weapon was discharged into the air. One US officer gave the command to open fire and the Sioux responded by taking up the confiscated weapons. The US forces opened fire with carbine firearms and several rapid fire light artillery (Hotchkiss) guns mounted on the overlooking hill. When the fighting had concluded, 25 US soldiers lay dead, many killed by friendly fire. 153 Sioux were killed, mostly women and children

(1894) - Chief Gall dies and is buried at St Elizabeth Mission in Wakpala South Dakota. He gave his land allotment to the church, where St. Elizabeth was established.

(1896) - St James Catholic Church was established in Porcupine North Dakota.

(1897) - The Benedictine established St Peter Mission in Fort Yates, North Dakota.

(1901) - Dr. Aaron McGraffey Beede established an Episcopalian Parish at Cannon Ball and at St. Gabriel at Breien, North Dakota.

(1903) - The military post of Fort Yates was abandoned. All the soldiers were sent to Fort McKern and the military graves were dug up and relocated to Fort McKern at this time.

(1904) - John Leach started a store in Cannon Ball North Dakota.

(1905) - E. F. started another store in Cannon Ball North Dakota.

(1908) - The town of McLaughlin South Dakota was established by buying the allotment from Bear Soldier and the town was named after Major James McLaughlin.

(1909) - The Government open Standing Rock open for homestead. The United States open the reservation up for Homesteaders. In 1910 Pierre SD held a land lottery and IJ Iorns came to Standing Rock with his winning land lottery ticket. He started his homestead.

(1910) - Sioux Land ceding, 1910 Sioux Land ceding’s, by county. Intentional breakup of tiyospaye relations of communities with the land.

(1911) - The re-establishment of Tribal Business Council on Standing Rock to make resolutions, handle enrollment, adopting people into the tribe for enrollment, taken care of leasing and dealing with the Lemon land issues. The appointed Chairmen held one year terms.

(1911) - Marcellus Red Tomahawk as the first Chairman for Standing Rock from the Cannon Ball District.

(1911) - William Clark opened a general store in Solen North Dakota and became the postmaster for Solen.

(1911) - T. C. Sherman received the first grant to land near the future site of Selfridge from the government and sold it to Milwaukee Railroad Company.

(1911- 1912) - Joseph Otter Robe was appointed Tribal Chairman.

(1912-1913) - John Tiokason was appointed Tribal Chairman.

(1913) - The Court house was built in Fort Yates by Adam Ostrum and sons.

(1913-1914) - Vital Bear Face was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1914) - The Standing Rock Tribal Council adopted a constructional form of government

(1914) - WWI. World War I, Troop was called up to enlist. Many Indian people from Standing Rock enlisted even though they were not legally United States citizens. Richard Blue Earth of Cannon Ball ND was the first North Dakota Indian to enlist. Albert Grass from Cannon Ball, ND died in the war.

(1914-1915) - John Grass was appointed Tribal Chairman.

(1915) - May 13, 1915 - A large wave of homestead were open on Standing Rock Reservation so the homesteader came to claim open land on Standing Rock.

(1915) - A Catholic Church was established in Selfridge North Dakota.

(1915) - Ferry operating near Fort Yates at Stony Point by Edward Johnson fare $25 cents.

(1915-1916) - Dominic Long Bull was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1916-1917) - Thomas Frosted was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1917) - Shield ND granted citizenship. Shield ND granted 350 Indian people citizenship. At the ceremony men were given an arrow and women received a leather pouch containing a coin purse. Both were given a badge to wear proclaiming the fact that they were citizens of the United States. Several weeks later, tax statements were sent out to the new citizens. Most unable to pay taxes and so they lost their land.

(1917-1918) - Henry Iron Shield was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1918) - WWI draft. Fourteen men from Sioux County called by draft.

(1917-1920) - Clarence Grey Eagle was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1919) - Indians who served in the military in World War I were recognized as citizen of the United States and entitled to vote in federal elections.

(1919) - Richard Blue Earth was the first North Dakota Indian to enlist into the army services. In 1919 all Indians who served in the Army Forces were granted citizenship.

(1919) - The Indian Farm School was officially closed and the Sisters were moved to Fort Yates and staffed St. Bernard Mission School.

(1920-1921) - Herbert Buffalo Boy was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1921-1922) - Thomas Mentz was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1922-1923) - Benedict Black Hoop was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1923) - Black Hill Claim files. The Black Hills claim was filed by the Sioux Nation in U.S. Court of Claims in 1923. When, in 1923, the Lakota entered their suit with the US Court of Claims, the US were clearly not expecting a refusal of monetary compensation in lieu of the Black Hills because they stalled their decision for nineteen years, entertaining motions and counter-motions, professing they were 'studying' the matter.

(1923-1924) - Martin Medicine was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1924) - June 2, 1924 - The Snyder Act which U.S. Citizenship granted to all Indians. Twenty five years after being assigned an allotment those families showing competence in managing their own affairs were given clear title to the land and citizenship in the U.S. The Department of the Interior devised a “Ritual on Admission of Indians to full American Citizenship" in which Indians shot off a last arrow, denounced their Indian ways and pledge to "live the life of a white man or white woman". The people of Standing Rock though under many cultural stresses, continued to organize along more traditional patterns. Until World War I, were many Standing Rock soldier enlisted in the Arm services. On 1924 all remaining Indians were made citizens of the United States except for many on Standing Rock in 1940 many finally agreed to become US Citizens.

(1928-1929) - Richard Ramey was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1928) - The Merriam Report of 1928 is often seen as one of the most complete analysis of Native American affairs ever done. It was delivered to Congress highlighting the lack of opportunities in higher education, inadequate services and expenditures in all areas of administration including health care, housing, and education in general. The Merriam Report described the condition of the American Indians on reservations as deplorable.

(1920-1930) - Basil Two Bear was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1930-1931) - Jack Iron Boulder was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1931-1932) - Edward Young Hawk was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1932-1933) - Francis Bullhead was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1933-1934) - Eugene Young Hawk was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1934) - Indian Reorganization Act-Howard-Wheeler Act. This act was to re-establishes Indian rights and self-governments. John Collier proposed altering the way the United States government did business with the tribes through the Indian Reorganization Act. Collier proposed formal recognition of the tribal councils that existed on reservations and more tribal input into federal decision-making that affect Indian people. The Tribes had the choice to reorganize under a constitution form of government which at least in theory gave the tribes greater autonomy. Learning that the IRA would limit the tribe's sovereignty, Standing Rock people did not choose to reorganize under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. In 1914 the Standing Rock Tribal Council adopted a constructional form of government and even without accepting the IRA, Standing Rock revised its constitution.

(1934-1935) - John Gates Sir, was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1935) - Works Progress Administration (WPA) was active in Sioux County

(1935-1936) - Antoine Derockbraine was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1936-1937) - Don Yellow Earrings was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1937) - Sundance held at Cannon Ball with Bears Heart as the intercessor

(1937-1938) - Edward Young Hawk was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1938-1940) - John Gates Sr. was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1941-1948) - World War II with both men and women enlisting into the service from Standing Rock.

(1942) - The United States Court of Claims dismissed the Black Hills Claim brought by the Sioux Nation

(1944) - The National Congress of American Indians was established to protect the rights of Indian people.

(1944) - The Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, formerly called the Missouri River Basin Project, was initially authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1944, which approved the general comprehensive plan for the conservation, control, and use of water resources in the entire Missouri River Basin. The intended beneficial uses of these water resources include flood control, aids to navigation, irrigation, supplemental water supply, power generation, municipal and industrial water supplies, stream-pollution abatement, sediment control, preservation and enhancement of fish and wildlife, and creation of recreation opportunities. It is estimated that Lakota, Dakota and Nakota tribes lost 202,000 acres overall, which means the dams destroyed more Native American land than any other public works project in the history of the nation.”

(1946) - Indian Claims Commission Act is passed, allowing monetary compensation for taken land, but no possible return of it. A claim is initiated again "on behalf" of the Lakota again, the Lakota state that the land is not for sale.

(1946) - Resistance to “Emancipation Bill” Lakota refuses tribal alienation with claims to traditional identities and treaties.

(1946) - The Black Hills Claims was refilled in the court by the Lakota Nation.

(1948-1949) - Josephine Gates Kelly was appointed the first Tribal chairwoman of Standing Rock. The Vice President Ignatius Iron Road.

(1948) - Relocation Indian commissioner Glenn L. Emmons started the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) relocation program in 1948 to relocate Indian people to urban areas.

(1948) - Mrs. Josephine Kelly was the first Indian woman delegate to a Republican National Convention.

(1948) - In 1948 the Army Corp of Engineers began construction of the Oahe Dam. Despite intense opposition from the Standing Rock Tribal Council 160,889 acres of prime agricultural and rangeland was flooded and 25% of the reservation populace was forced to move to other parts of the reservation. The Impact on the reservation has significant losses in the economic and psychological terms

(1951-1952) - Whitney Agard was elected Tribal Chairman

(1951-1954) - Korean conflict many enlisted into the Army Services

(1951) - The Standing Rock Sioux attempted to stop the Army Corps of Engineers in 1951 by attempted to hire their own attorney, to be paid out of tribal funds, to help in the negotiations regarding lands taken in the Pick-Sloan dam projects. The tribe wanted legal counsel which would be totally independent from the politics of the Department of the Interior. However, Commissioner of Indian Affairs Dillon Meyer rejected their choice of an attorney and allowed only a one-year contract.

(1952) - The Relocation Program of 1948 caused the migration of Indian people to urban areas became a general trend in the post-World War II years. By 1953 placements had reached 2600, and they peaked in 1957 with 6964. By 1960 a total of 33,466 Indians had been relocated to urban areas.

(1952-1953) - David Blackhoop was elected Tribal Chairman.

(1953) - United States representative William Henry Harrison of Wyoming introduced Resolution 108 in which states that Congress intends to terminate at the earliest possible time all Indians, meaning that Congress will no longer recognize individuals as Indian and will remove all Indian rights and benefits.

(1953) - Sitting Bull's bones stolen by Mobridge Chamber of Commerce, The bones of Sitting Bull were allegedly stolen from a grave at Fort Yates and reburied near Mobridge, South Dakota

(1955-1956) - J. Dan Howard was elected Tribal Chairman

(1956-1957) - Edward Loon was elected Tribal Chairman

(1957-1958) - Marguerite Fiddler was appointed Tribal Chairman

(1958) - Public Law 85-915 September 2, 1958 | [H. R. 12662] 72 Stat. 1762 An Act

To provide for the acquisition of lands by the United States required for the reservoir created by the construction of Oahe Dam on the Missouri River and for rehabilitation of the Indians of the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation in South Dakota and North Dakota, and for other purposes. States for the Oahe project on the Missouri River and in consideration thereof the United States will pay to the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and the individual Indian owners out of funds available for the Oahe Dam and Reservoir project: (1) a sum aggregating $1,952,040, to be disbursed in accordance with schedules prepared by the Missouri River Basin project investigation staff; and (2) the amount of $3,299,513, which shall be in settlement of all claims, rights, and demands of the tribe and individual Indians arising out of the taking under this Act, to be disbursed in accordance with the provisions of section 2 hereof; (b) upon a determination by the Secretary of the Army, filed among the appropriate land records of the Department of the Interior within two years from the date of enactment of this Act, that any of the lands described in this Act are not required for Oahe project purposes, title to such land shall be revested in the former owner; and (c) if the Secretary of the Army determines that additional Indian lands, tribal or individual, within the Standing Rock Reservation are required for project purposes, he may acquire such lands by purchase with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, or by condemnation.

(1958) - In 1958 the Army Corps of Engineers filed suit to condemn Standing Rock Sioux land which was needed for the Oahe Dam. Tribal attorneys countered with a motion to dismiss because Congress had not given specific authorization to condemn tribal land. Support for the Indian’s case was provided in the 1868 Sioux Treaty which stated that land can be taken only upon payment of just compensation and the consent of adult tribal membership.

(1958) - Two weeks after the Oahe Dam was closed and the reservoir began filling Congress passed a settlement which provided a little more than $12 million to the Standing Rock Sioux. This was $14 million less than they had requested.

(1958-1959) - Theodore Jamerson was elected Tribal Chairman

(1959-1960) - James McLean was elected Tribal Chairman

(1959) - April 24, 1959 - Standing Rock Sioux tribe approved the tribe’s constitution and amendments

(1959) - Opposition to Missouri Dam sites Standing Rock Natives oppose land-takings and destruction of river habitat

(1960-1960) - Clayton Brown Otter was elected Tribal Chairman and resigned

(1960) - The Army Corps of Engineers delivered payment to the Standing Rock Sioux for lands needed for the Oahe Dam project in 1960. In the midst of a fierce winter, the tribe was also given an immediate eviction notice. Indian families were forced to gather their possessions and leave the land. However, the government had not yet made available funds for the construction of new homes and the people were forced to live in trailers which they had to maintain at their own expense. The eviction date established by the Corps had been an arbitrary one. Tribal members could have remained in their old homes until the more favorable months of summer without interfering with the completion of the Oahe project.

(1960-1969) - Aljoe Agard was elected Tribal Chairman.

(1968) - Indian Civil Rights Acts. No Indian tribe in exercising powers of self-government shall - 1. Make or enforce any law prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition for a redress of grievances; 2. Violate the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable search and seizures, nor issue warrants, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or thing to be seized; 3. Subject any person for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy 4. Compel any person in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; 5. Take any private property for a public use without just compensation; 6. deny to any person in a criminal proceeding the right to a speedy and public trial, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witness against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and at his own expense to have the assistance of a counsel for his defense; 7. Require excessive bail, impose excessive fines, inflict cruel and unusual punishments, and in no event impose for conviction of any one offense any penalty or punishment greater than imprisonment for a term of one year and a fine of $5,000, or both 8. Deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of its laws or deprive any person of liberty or property without due process of law 9. Pass any bill of attainder or ex post facto law; or 10. Deny to any person accused of an offense punishable by imprisonment the right, upon request, to a trial by jury of not less than six persons.

(1969-1970) - Douglas Skye was elected Tribal Chairman

(1970-1975) - Melvin White Eagle was elected Tribal Chairman.

(1970) - Native American self-determination refers to the social movements, legislation, and beliefs by which the tribes in the United States exercise self-governance and decision making on issues that affect their own people. "Self-determination" is meant to reverse the paternalistic policies enacted upon Native American tribes since the U.S. government created treaties and established the reservation system. The nations want to control their own affairs. Self-determination is the means by which a tribe implements its sovereign powers.

(1972) - The American Indian Movement (AIM) seized the village of Wounded Knee and occupied the town for 71 days.

(1973) - Standing Rock Community College was established on July, 1973 to provide High Education to member of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and the surrounding areas. The first offices and classrooms were in the Douglas Skye Memorial Retirement Complex in Fort Yates. There were three full-time people on staff.

(1973) - Standing Rock Community College was granted a Charter by the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe on September 21, 1973 to

(1974) - Indian Claims Commission awards the Sioux $17.5 Million plus interest for the taking of the Black Hills pending determination of the government offset.

(1974) - New Mayor of Fort Yates April 7, 1974, the first mayor of Fort Yates was elected Judge William Gipp

(1975-1979) - Pat McLaughlin was elected Tribal Chairman.

(1975) - January 1, 1975 - The Indian Self-Determination and Education Act was passed. Expanding control over reservation programs and authorizing federal funding to build needed public school facilities on or near the reservations.

(1975) - The United States Court of Claims reversed the Indian Claims Commission decision thereby removing the monetary award from the loss of the Black Hills claim.

(1976) - October 8, 1976 - Congress passed a bill to terminate the Indian Claims Commission at the end of 1878 and the United States Court of Claims is to take over the cases the commission does not complete by December 31, 1978.

(1977) - U.S. offers the Lakota Nation $17.5 million for the Black Hills as a claim settlement. The offer represents the value of land in 1877. The offer is rejected; the Black Hills Are Not For Sale! In April, Union Carbide announces it has located a significant uranium deposit in Craven Canyon, Black Hills National Forest.

(1978) - Candidate Status for accreditation was granted to Standing Rock Community College in 1978 after a thorough evaluation by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Higher Education.

(1978) - The United States Congress provides for a new hearing in Supreme Court on the Black Hills Claim by the Sioux Nation.

(1978) - October 8, 1978 - United States Congress passed the American Indian Freedom Religious Act (AIRFA) in which the Congress recognizes its obligation to “ Protect and Preserve for the American Indian their inherent right to Freedom to believe, express and exercise their traditional religious rights.

(1978) - United States Congress pass the Education Amendment Act of 1978 giving substantial control of education programs to local communities.

(1978) - United States Congress pass the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) establishing United States policy to promote the stability and security if Indian tribes and families by giving the Tribal court jurisdiction over Indian Children living on or off the reservation.

(1979-1981) - Frank Lawrence was elected Tribal Chairman.

(1979) - The United States Court of Claims award the Sioux Nation $17.5 Million plus interested for taken of the Black Hills,

(1980) - U.S. Supreme Court affirms Court of Claims ruling in Black Hills claim and award Sioux $106 Million. The Court degrees the taking of the illegal seizure of the Black Hills by the U,S, government, "A more ripe and rank case of dishonorable dealings will never, in all probability, be found in our history." The Sioux overwhelmingly reject money settlement in the Black Hills case and seek returns of the land. Work on land return continues; no tribe has accepted any monetary compensation.

(1980) - Court decision by Judge Blackmon awards the Lakota $106 million for the Black Hills as settlement to the Sioux Nation and the Settlement is refused. The Black Hills are not sale.

(1981-1983) - Pat McLaughlin elected Tribal Chairman

(1983-1991) - Charles W. Murphy elected Tribal Chairman.

(1988) - The United States Legislation enacted to repeal the 1953 Termination policy established by the U.S. House Concurrent Resolution 108.

(1988) - October 17, 1980 - Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Enacted by the United States Congress to regulate the conduct of gaming in Indian Land.

(1990) - The Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act protects Indian grave sites on federal public lands against looting. The Indian Arts and Crafts Act, which goes into effect in 1996, finally protect the work of Indian artists, an effort that began in 1935.

(1991-1994) - Jesse Taken Alive elected Tribal Chairman

(1992) - Congress authorized in 1992 nearly $91 million to the Standing Rock Sioux in compensation for damages caused by the Oahe Dam project. The legislation also established an irrigation area on the reservation and transferred the administrative jurisdiction of the land taken in the project from the Secretary of the Army (Corps of Engineers) to the Secretary of the Interior (Bureau of Indian Affairs).

(1994-2005) - Charles W. Murphy elected Tribal Chairman

(1996) - March 6, 1996 - Standing Rock Sioux Tribal Council voted to officially amend the charter, changing the college's name to Sitting Bull College (SBC).

(1996) - The Standing Rock Sioux Tribes signed agreement with the Nation Park Service to establish the Tribal Historic Preservation Office (THPO) assuming the authority from the State Historic preservation offices (SHPO).

(1999) - In 1999 Lakota protesters established a camp on LaFramboise Island in the Missouri River in South Dakota. The camp was in protest of the Water Resources and Development Act (WRDA) which would give treaty lands to the state of South Dakota. The lands were taken from the Cheyenne River and Lower Brulé Sioux tribes by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1947 as a part of the Pick-Sloan dam project. The land was no longer needed by the Corps.

(1999) – February 22, 1999 - Cobell v. Babbit is a class-action lawsuit brought by Native American representatives against two departments of the United States government . The plaintiffs claim that the U.S. government has incorrectly accounted for the income from Indian trust assets, which are legally owned by the Department of the Interior , but held in trust for individual Native Americans (the beneficial owners ).

(2001) - Standing Rock Historic Scenic Byway. Standing Rock's 1806 became a North Dakota State Scenic Byway on November 7, 2001 and South Dakota Scenic Byway April 24, 2002.

(2001) - Fort Manuel was rebuilt. The Kenel District rebuilt Fort Manuel and developed tourism in their community. Manuel Lisa built the Fort in 1811 and Sakakawea died in the fort 1812.

(2003) - The Lewis and Clark Bicentennial include the Native Voice in the Tent of Many voices and the tribal advisors from the tribes along the Missouri River.

(2003) - The Standing Rock Tribal Tourism Office was created in 2003 by the Economic Development Office on carry over monies from the EDA funds of $40,000 with the salary at $19,000 a year.

(2004) - New Standing Rock Tribal Offices. The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe builds a multimillion dollar tribal building to house all the tribal government and employees.

(2005) - September 22, 2005 - Standing Rock became a NATIONAL NATIVE AMERICAN SCENIC BYWAY. Standing Rock became a national Native American Scenic Byway. The entire 86 miles of the Standing Rock Native American Scenic Byway are within the borders of the Standing Rock Reservation. In addition to its rich history, the reservation is unique due to its location in two states North Dakota (ND) and South Dakota (SD). Pam Ternes of Sitting Bull College is the Scenic Byway Coordinator.

(2005-2009) - Ron His Horse Is Thunder elected Tribal Chairman

(2005) - The return of the Sitting Bull Grave site in Fort Yates from the States of North Dakota to the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe.

(2007) - September 13, 2007 - The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People was adopted by The United Nation General Assembly of the 61 session adopted The Declaration sets out the individual and collective rights of indigenous peoples, as well as their rights to culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and other issues. It also "emphasizes the rights of indigenous peoples to maintain and strengthen their own institutions, cultures and traditions, and to pursue their development in keeping with their own needs and aspirations". It "prohibits discrimination against indigenous peoples", and it "promotes their full and effective participation in all matters that concern them and their right to remain distinct and to pursue their own visions of economic and social development". The goal of the Declaration is to encourage countries to work alongside indigenous peoples to solve global issues, like development, multicultural democracy and decentralization. According to Article 31, there is a major emphasis that the indigenous peoples will be able to protect their cultural heritage and other aspects of their culture and tradition, which is extremely important in preserving their heritage. Four Counties voted against the declaration which was Australia, Canada, New Zealand and United States.

(2009-2013) - Charles W. Murphy elected Tribal Chairman, Charles w. Murphy is the 44th Chairman for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and in Tribal Council for 37 years.

(2009) - December 12, 2009 - Cobell v Salazar Class Action Settlement Agreement was settled for $3.4 billion in 2009, with $1.4 billion going to the plaintiffs and $2 billion allocated to repurchase land that was distributed under the Dawes Act and return it to communal tribal ownership.

(2010) - December 7, 2010 - The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People was finally supported by the United States. All 4 countries Australia, Canada, New Zealand and United States switched their positions to 'supporting' the declaration as a non-legally-binding document. On 16 December 2010, President Obama declared that the United States is going to sign the declaration.

(2013) - May 15, 2013 - The Sitting Bull Visitor Center was built with the partnership of the Standing Rock Native American Scenic byway, Sitting Bull College and Standing Rock Sioux Tribe.

(2013-2016) - October, 2013 - David Archambault II became our 45th Chairman for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe.

(2013) -December 12,2013 - Congressional Silver Medal for the Dakota/Lakota Code Talker was awarded to individual families who fought in World War I and World War II.

(2016) – Sacred Stone established